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Any appeal from the departmental courts is brought before the appeal courts of Bucharest, Craiova, Galatz or Jassy; and thence, if necessary, to the supreme tribunal, or court. At the accession of Prince Charles, the Rumanian army consisted of raw levies, led by adventurers from any country, provided with no uniform, and, in many cases, armed only with pikes or sabres.
Under Prince Charles universal and compulsory service was introduced. The present system, in which his reforms culminated, rests upon a law of , modified in and By this law the forces are divided into three sections. The first is composed of men between the ages of 21 and 30, enrolled in the field army and its reserves.
Every citizen capable of bearing arms must serve from his 30th to his 36th year in the second section, or territorial militia , which musters in spring for shooting -practice and in the autumn for field manoeuvres. In the militia are included soldiers who have served their time in the ranks, and recruits chosen by lot from the yearly contingent of conscripts but not immediately summoned for duty in the field army. Finally, every citizen between the ages of 36 and 46 belongs to the third section, called the Gloata Landsturm , which can only be called upon for home service in war.
In time of peace the field army consists of four complete army corps, with headquarters at Craiova, Bucharest, Jassy and Galatz; besides an independent brigade in the Dobrudja, and a separate cavalry division with headquarters at Bucharest. Its peace strength in was officers, 89, non-commissioned officers and men, and 18, horses. The infantry was armed with the Mannlicher magazine rifle model , the cavalry with the Mannlicher carbine , the horse and field artillery with Krupp quick -firing guns. On a war footing the field army would contain , combatants. It was estimated that the militia should ultimately furnish an additional force of Ioo, men, but up to this branch of the service was not completely organized.
The arrangements for mobilization are otherwise very complete, and the field army is maintained in a high state of efficiency. The war budget for was X2,, They consist of the Sereth Line, an entrenchment extending over a front of 45 m. All these fortifications, including the additional works at Galatz and Focshani, are strongly armed with Krupp and Gruson guns. The Rumanian navy is divided into two squadrons; one for the Danube, with headquarters at Galatz; one for the Black Sea, with headquarters at Constantza.
In the fleet comprised one cruiser, seven gunboats, eight torpedo -boats, six coastguard vessels, a training-ship, a despatch- boat , a ship for the mining service and numerous vessels for naval police.
The state possesses a floating dock and a marine arsenal at Galatz. Its independence was formally recognized by the oecumenical patriarch of Constantinople, in The Rumanian Church had claimed its independence from very ancient times, but under the Turkish suzerainty and Phanariote hospodars Greeks were generally elected as bishops, and the influence of the Greek patriarch at Constantinople came to be more and more felt. In it declared itself independent of all foreign prelates. In a law was passed by which the bishops were elected by the senate, the chamber of deputies, and the synod sitting as an assembly the only other occasion on which provision is made for such an assembly is in the event of the throne becoming vacant without any apparent heir.
It was subsequently decided to consecrate the holy oil in Rumania instead of procuring it from Russia or Constantinople; but the Greek patriarch protested. Secret negotiations were entered into which came to a successful issue. The patriarch feared on the one hand that the growing influence of the Russian Church would give a colour of Slavism to the whole church, and that a Russian might eventually be appointed oecumenical patriarch at Constantinople, while the Rumanians hoped by means of the independence of their church to deprive the Russians of all excuse for interfering in their internal affairs under the pretext of religion.
The Rumanians, although obtaining complete independence, agreed to recognize the patriarch at Constantinople as the chief dignitary of the Orthodox Church. The metropolitan archbishop of Bucharest, officially styled metropolitan primate of Rumania, presides over the Holy Synod; the other members being the metropolitan of Jassy primate of Moldavia , the six bishops of Ramnicu Valcea, Roman, Hushi, Buzeu, Curtea de Argesh and the Lower Danube Galatz ; together with eight bishops in partibus, their coadjutors.
Metropolitans and bishops are elected by the senate and deputies, sitting together. In Hungary there are a uniate metropolitan and three bishops belonging to the Rumanian church. The secular clergy marry before ordination; and only regular clergy kalugari are eligible for high preferment. Although many convents had been closed and utilized for secular purposes, there were in no less than , including nunneries. The older convents are usually built in places difficult of access and are strongly fortified; for in troublous times they served as refuges for the peasants or rallying-places for demoralized troops.
The sequestration of the monastic estates, which in covered nearly one-third of Rumania, was due to flagrant abuses. Many estates were held by alien foundations, such as the convents of Mount Athos and Jerusalem ; while the revenues of many more were spent abroad by the patriarch of Constantinople.
Religious liberty is accorded to all churches, Jews, Moslems, Roman Catholics, Protestants, Armenians and Lipovans having their own places of worship. At the close of the 19th century, however, the accommodation was insufficient, the attendance limited in consequence, and the percentage of illiterates high; reaching Great improvements were effected between and , the number of schools increasing from to , and the pupils from , to , The state contributes to the maintenance of elementary schools, for the Vlachs in Macedonia , Bulgaria and Transylvania.
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Secondary and higher education are also free. There are gymnasia, or grammar schools of four classes, roughly corresponding with the German sub-gymnasia; and lyceums of eight classes, which answer to the German gymnasia. Up to the fourth class all pupils are taught alike in the lyceums; in the fifth, however, they are divided into a literary or " humanist " section, and a scientific or " realist " section. The four upper classes are taught French and German; English and Italian being added for the " realists," Greek and Latin for the " humanists.
In there were four ecclesiastical seminaries, seven training schools for teachers and eight military schools. The cost of education is largely borne by the communes, as well as by the state. At Bucharest and Jassy there are universities with faculties of law, philosophy , science and medicine and theology. The history of primitive civilization in Rumania can be traced back to the Neolithic Age; numerous remains of this period have been found at Vodastra in the Romanatzi department. Roman rule left a deep imprint on the country.
A great military road encircled the Dobrudja hills and skirted the Bulgarian shore of the Danube. It was linked by a ferry at Celeiu to two lesser roads; one striking northwards into Transylvania, up the Olt valley, the other bending westwards until it reached the Jiu, and there diverging southwards to Turnu Severin, and northwards to the Vulcan Pass.
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The plains near the Olt and Jiu estuaries are rich in Roman remains, notably in the towns of Caracal, Grodjibod and Islaz. Ruins and inscriptions may be seen at Resca, a temple at Slaveni, villas and a statue of the emperor Commodus A. All these lie within a radius of 60 m. Two ramparts, known as Trajan's wall, can be discerned, one on either side of the railway from Cernavoda to Constantza; and there were bridges over the Danube at Turnu Severin and Turnu Magurele.
The Tropaeum Trajani, or Adam Klissi monument found near Rassova in the Dobrudja and removed to Bucharest museum , is a round stone structure of ft.
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See G. Few monuments were left by the barbarian invaders who ravaged Rumania from the 3rd century to the 14th save some vestiges of Gothic culture at Buzeu, and at Petroasa, close by. The celebrated treasure of Petroasa commonly written Petrossa , preserved in Bucharest museum, consists of embossed and jewelled gold plate, and probably dates from the 6th century see Plate.
Medieval tapestries, with ecclesiastical vestments , ornaments and some fine pieces of early woodwork, are also preserved in Bucharest museum. The attempt to create a national style of architecture , based on Greek and Byzantine models, began under Stephen the Great of Moldavia , lasting until the 17th century, when it was arrested, first by political disorders, and, later, by the commercial development which caused a demand for cheap and rapid building.
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Its chief accomplishment is the cathedral of Curtea de Argesh q. Painting and sculpture , like modern Rumanian architecture, are still in their infancy. The final results of the census of were published by the ministry of agriculture in , with introduction by Dr L. See also G. Lahovari, Marele dictzonar geografic al Romdniei vols. Beuger, Rumania in trans. Keane London, ; A. Bellessort, La Roumanie contemporaine Paris, L. Colescu, Progres economiques..
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Baicoianil, Histoire de la politique douaniere de la Roumanie de 2 vols. History I Introduction. For information upon this period, and upon the subsequent centuries of Roman or Byzantine rule, see Dacia. From the 6th to the 12th century, wave after wave of barbarian conquerors, Goths , Tatars, Sla y s and others, passed over the country, and, according to one school of historians, almost obliterated its original Daco-Roman population; the modern Vlachs, on this theory, representing a later body of immigrants from Transdanubian territory.
According to others, the ancient inhabitants were, at worst, only submerged for a time, and their direct descendants are the Rumans of to-day. Each of these conflicting views is supported by strong evidence; and the whole controversy, too large and too obscure for discussion here, is considered under the heading Vlachs. Towards the close of the 13th century, Walachia and Moldavia were occupied by a mixed population, composed partly of Vlachs, but mainly of Sla y s and Tatars; in Great Walachia,1 also called Muntenia, the Petchenegs and Cumanians The predominated.
Rumanian historians have striven, by Vlachs piecing together the stray fragments of evidence which survive, to prove that their Vlach ancestors had not, as sometimes alleged, been reduced to a scattered community of nomadic shepherds, dwelling among the Carpathians as the serfs of their more powerful neighbours. The researches of HaSdeu , Xenopol and other historians tend to show the existence of a highly organized Vlach society in Transylvania, Oltland and certain districts of Hungary and Moldavia; of a settled commonalty, agricultural rather than pastoral ; and of a hereditary feudal nobility , bound to pay tribute and render military service to the Hungarian crown , but enjoying many privileges, which were defined by a distinct customary law jus valahicum.
Although the characteristic titles of voivode , knez and ban all implying military as well as civil authority are of Slavonic origin, and perhaps derived from the practice of the later Bulgarian or Bulgaro-Vlachian empire, the growth of Vlach feudal institutions is attributed to German influences, which permeated through Hungarian channels into the Vlach world, and transformed the primitive tribal chiefs into a feudal aristocracy of boiars or boyards 2 nobles.
With the r3th century, at latest, begins the authentic political history of the Vlachs in Rumania, but it is not the history of a united people. The two principalities of Walachia of and Moldavia developed separately, and each has its separate annals. About the year it first - becomes possible to trace the progress of these ality Danubian Principalities in a single narrative, owing to the uniform system of administration adopted by the Turkish authorities, and the rapid contemporary growth of a national consciousness among the Vlachs. At last, in ,. The subjoined history of the country is arranged under the four headings: Walachia, Moldavia, the Danubian Principalities and Rumania, in order to emphasize this historical development.
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Radu dies in , and is succeeded by a series of voivodes whose names and dates are duly given; but this early chapter of Walachian history has been rudely handled by critical historians. A considerable body of Vlachs doubtless emigrated from Hungary at this time, and founded in Walachia a principality dependent 1 Walachia east of the Olt, not to be confused with the Meyc BAaxia in southern Macedonia see Balkan Peninsula. In later Rumanian history there arose a class who obtained their rank by merit or favour, and did not necessarily bequeath it to their heirs.
But the hereditary aristocracy also survived, and feudalism. In the voivode John Bassaraba 1 or Bazarab the Great succeeded in inflicting a crushing defeat on his suzerain King Charles I. Louis the Great succeeded for a while in restor acy. Subsequently, in order to retain a hold on the loyalty of the Walachian voivode, the king of Hungary invested him with the title of duke of Fogaras and Omlas,.
Ruman districts in Transylvania. Under the voivode Mircea , whose prowess is still celebrated in the national folk-songs, Walachia played for a. This prince during the earlier part of his reign sought a counterpoise to Hungarian influence in close alliance with King Ladislaus V. He added to his other titles that of " count of Severin, despot of the Dobrudja, and lord of Silistria," and both Vidin and Sistora appear in his possession. A Walachian contingent, apparently Mircea's, aided the Servian tsar Lazar in his vain endeavour to resist the Turks at Kossovo ; later he allied himself with his former enemy Sigismund of Hungary against the Turkish sultan Bayezid I.
Bayezid subsequently invaded and laid waste a large part of Walachia, but the voivode succeeded in inflicting considerable loss on the retiring Turks, and the capture of Bayezid by Timur in gave the country a reprieve. In the internecine struggle that followed amongst the sons of Bayezid, Mircea espoused the cause of Musa; but, though he thus obtained for a while considerable influence in the Turkish councils, this policy eventually drew on him the vengeance of the sultan Mahomet I.
During the succeeding period the Walachian princes appear alternately as the allies of Hungary or the creatures of the Turk. The elections, though often controlled by the Turkish Divan , were still constitutionally in the hands of the boiars, who were split up into various factions, each with its own pretender to the throne.
The princes followed one another in rapid succession, and usually met with violent ends.